Steve Puetz graduated in 1973 from Purdue University with a degree in mathematics, statistics, and computer science. He worked as a computer programmer, data processing manager, commodity market trader, commodity market analyst, private financial market analyst and writer. He is the author of Total Collapse: The Financial Crash of the Millennium, published in 1997.
The Unified Cycle Theory
How Cycles Dominate the Structure of the Universe and Influence Life on Earth
by Stephen J. Puetz
The Unified Cycle Theory
How Cycles Dominate the Structure of the Universe and Influence Life on Earth
by Stephen J. Puetz
Published Feb 11, 2009
Genre: SCIENCE / General
There is a vital connection between what occurs at the far reaches of our universe and what happens here on Earth.
We are an integral part of this giant universe. As energies are released in space, they create measurable impacts on galaxies and solar systems as well as on our small planet. Cycles upon cycles of energy impact our lives, and although we may not be able to see them, they do affect us. They cause us to react in ways that, for millennia, influenced the course of our history, economics, and even our psychology.
When author Steve Puetz worked as a market analyst, he became interested in cyclic analysis and began a search for a plausible explanation of cyclic behavior in the markets. As the database grew and his research progressed, he began to see that all cycles-whether financial, sociological, gravitational, geomagnetic, or geophysical-had a correlation, and from this realization evolved the Unified Cycle Theory.
The Unified Cycle Theory not only organizes, unifies, explains, and clarifies the many cycles already discovered by a variety of scientists, researchers, and analysts, but is one that also predicts important turning points in mankind's social and economic future. Most surprisingly of all, it has uncovered a set of cycles that come from a mysterious source.
It's important to emphasize that most EUWS frequencies below 40 million years represent cycles found by others. Within the last century, various scholars already discovered all of the main components of the EUWS cycles related to human activities. The monumental breakthrough with the Unified Cycle Theory isn't that these cycles exist. Rather, the breakthrough lies with the fact that these cycles act together as a cohesive group. And because of this, they share a common origin. Knowing that these cycles share a common origin immediately invalidates every existing theory regarding their source. Whatever the source, any theory explaining the origin of the EUWS cycles must account for every frequency from 28.7 days all the way to 22.2 billion years. None of the existing theories come close to doing that. A number of researchers have proposed that cycles in the million to billion year range originate from galactic cosmic rays coming from our Milky Way galaxy. At one time, I leaned toward that same idea. However, the sheer size of the largest, verifiable EUWS cycle completely eliminates our galaxy as a possible source. The most recent trough of the 22.2-gyr cycle points back to the Big Bang. Hence, it's possible that the Big Bang itself touched off this series of cycles. However, for that to be true, the trough of the 22.2-gyr cycle must coincide exactly with the Big Bang. In this particular case, close doesn’t count. The latest estimate of the age of the universe rests at 13.73 ±0.12 Ga.[Hinshaw et al., 2008] The estimated 22.2-gyr trough comes at 13.82 Ga. The difference equals a 91.3-myr sub-cycle defined by the TPD Principle. It's possible that estimates of the age of the universe and the 22.2-gyr frequency will be revised so their troughs match. However, even if that happens, it still seems unlikely that a Big Bang could modulate itself. If the Big Bang failed to set off this sequence of cycles, then only one other possible explanation exists. And that possibility lies outside of our known universe! Hence, the EUWS cycles serve as the first credible evidence that something lies beyond our observable universe. Looking at the totality of the EUWS cycles, the Unified Cycle Theory predicts the possibility of cycles longer than 22.2 billion years that modulate repeated big bangs. If the EUWS cycles set off the Big Bang, then these cycles certainly control big bangs in other universes as well. This idea isn't new. A few physicists have already become uncomfortable with the singularity of the Big Bang. University of California Davis physicist Andreas Albrecht, one of the early developers of Alan Guth's cosmic inflation theory, now has second thoughts about inflation. Albrecht, along with another leading theoretical physicist, Joao Magueijo, co-authored an abstract entitled A Time Varying Speed of Light as a Solution to Cosmological Puzzles. In their paper, they outline a theory that the speed of light varies over time. “Cosmologists have long been dissatisfied with the 'Standard Big Bang' (SBB) model of the Universe. This is not due to any conflict between the big bang theory and observations, but because of the limited scope offered by the SBB to explain certain striking features of the Universe. From the SBB perspective the homogeneity, isotropy, and 'flatness' of the Universe, and the primordial seeds of galaxies and other structure are all features which are 'built in' from the beginning as initial conditions. Cosmologists would like to explain these features as being the result of calculable physical processes. A great attraction of the Inflationary Cosmologies is that they address these issues by showing on the basis of concrete calculations that a wide variety of initial conditions evolve, during a period of cosmic inflation, to reflect the homogeneity, isotropy, flatness and perturbation spectrum that we observe today.”[Albrecht and Magueijo, 1999] While admitting that their theory hasn't been worked out to the same detail as cosmic inflation, Albrecht and Magueijo did show how their theory addresses the flatness issue, the cosmological constant, and the entropy problems. Next, the pair took their theory a step further. In a transcript entitled Einstein's Biggest Blunder, Albrecht and Magueijo propose that a variable speed of light paves the way for multiple big bangs. Specifically, Magueijo stated: “And you might think this is the end of the Universe, but of course in the picture of this theory it's just creating the conditions for another Big Bang to happen again — a sudden drop in the speed of light, another sudden discharge of all this energy into another Big Bang. So it is possible that actually our Big Bang is just one of many, one of many yet to come, and one of many which there were in the past already — maybe the Universe is just this sequence of Big Bangs all the time.”[Cal Davis Cosmology, 2008] But the cosmic inflation revolt doesn't end with Albrecht and Magueijo. Princeton University physicist, Paul Steinhardt, another early developer of Guth's inflation model, now openly questions its validity. Christian Science Monitor writer P.N. Spotts interviewed Steinhardt in an article entitled The Big Bang (One More Time): “He and Cambridge University physicist Neil Turok have unveiled a model in which the universe has no beginning or end, but replenishes itself in a cycle of expansion and contraction. Each expansion is triggered by its own big bang.... They hold that much of their model works well in a four-dimensional universe of height, depth, width, and space-time. They add that it finds its true home in the 9 to 10 dimensions of string theory, which tries to explain how the four forces of nature emerged from one unified force early on. One variation, known as M theory, holds that the universe consists of two parallel sheets, or membranes. The two membranes are separated by a 'fifth' dimension a tiny fraction of a centimeter wide. Steinhardt and Turok's calculations describe the membranes meeting in a slap, triggering the big bang. On the membrane humans inhabit, the bang yields the particles, energy, and forces familiar to scientists. The other contains 'we know not what,' Steinhardt says. The duo posits the second one may be home to 'dark matter.' Over trillions of years, the membranes expand, growing darker, colder, and less dense, until the logic of Steinhardt's equations brings them back together in another cosmic slap. The membranes resume expanding, even as they drift apart, only to repeat the cycle. Steinhardt says this model yields all the features of the inflationary model, without inflation.”[Spotts, 2002] While Steinhardt presents interesting ideas, multiple big bangs don't necessarily have to be so complex that they involve membranes. The basis for a simpler big bang cycle centers on ideas discussed by University of Maryland geoscientist, Charles Breiterman. Breiterman raises a relevant question about whether the Earth is an open or closed system. In his abstract, entitled Considering the Earth as an Open System, Breiterman wrote: “This review article synthesizes research from several disciplines by conceiving of the Earth as an open system significantly influenced by inputs of matter from outer space. It carefully and critically surveys the topics of mass extinctions, interplanetary dust/micrometeorites, delivery of complex pre-biotic organic molecules from space, ice-ages, small comets and panspermia. The evidence, if verified by continuing investigations, shows that the Earth was an open system just after planet formation. Since then, the Earth has been significantly influenced by inputs of extraterrestrial matter, but the inputs are not critical to the sustained functioning of the system.”[Breiterman, 2004] Opinions vary on this subject. My own view sits close to Breiterman's, but not exactly the same. Reality probably lies closer to Earth acting as a hybrid system with some elements open and others closed. Furthermore, these ratios vary with time. In other words, the openness of Earth's ecosystem oscillates – just like everything else in our universe. Taking this one step further, the huge 22.2-gyr length of the largest observed EUWS frequency suggests that a multiverse exists as an open system. Our own observable universe functions as a small part of the multiverse. It does so in conjunction with a large set of other universes. Each of these individual universes, similar in operation to our own but varying in size, could be considered hybrid systems. Each universe essentially sustains itself; however, sometimes universes exchange elements. And the openness of each universe varies with time. While each individual universe behaves as a self-contained unit, nothing in the structure of the multiverse prevents individual universes from interacting with each other. This universal interaction would mimic the behavior of galaxies in our universe. Galaxies generally stay separated, but every once in a while, they crash and form a new, larger galaxy. Additionally, the magnetic field surrounding galaxies tends to contain matter and energy inside its field, however, some leakage occurs. In an identical manner, universes could merge and share matter with each other. In fact, under this model, a universe could simply be viewed as a super-large galaxy. Albeit, during a contraction phase, the black hole at the center of a universe attains such a large mass that new properties appear. These new properties then permit a universe to completely implode – resulting in endless cycles of big crunches followed by big bangs. This simple universal model basically operates on size. Each collection of matter in the multiverse displays different properties depending on size. For example, a small collection of galactic gas collapses to form a planet. A larger mass compresses to form a star similar to our Sun. A collection of matter greater than 10 solar masses forms a supernova, which eventually collapses, then explodes. More than 50 solar masses may result in supernova that collapse into black holes without subsequent explosions. In each case, a combination of mass and elemental composition determines the properties of the mass-collection. Something similar could happen when collections of mass reach a threshold well beyond the size of a galaxy. With attainment of that threshold, a galaxy suddenly changes into a universe. In an open multiverse, things never balance within each individual universe. For example, the amount of matter never equals anti-matter and the number of electrons fail to equal positrons. Inside an open multiverse, any combination of matter and energy is possible for each constituent universe. Of course, this is all conjecture. However, the conjecture fits the evidence supplied in this book. If a series of waves originates from outside our universe, it implies the existence of other universes inside a multiverse. And no logical reason emerges requiring these individual universes to remain separated from each other.